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Unanswered, however, is the validity of self-report in a general population survey. Results from criminal justice and treatment populations, who are much more likely to be involved with drugs, have limited generalizability. The only way to definitively determine the validity of self-reported drug use generated by survey methods is to survey a large enough percentage of a representative subset of the general population using both state-of-the-art survey procedures and collecting criterion measures.
This was the goal of the Validity study. At the end of , 21, 2. The rate of HIV infection was higher among females than among males in all regions and in most states. New York State reported the largest number of male and female HIV positive inmates and respectively , with Implications for criminal justice program planning will also be addressed.
Staff turnover is a perennial problem in the management of correctional institutions. In addition to the managerial issues involved with this level of turnover, high correctional officer turnover has been linked to security related issues such as elevated rates of violent incidents and disciplinaries involving both inmates and staff. Organizational research on realistic job previews and the literature on coping with work stress suggest that increasing the time new recruits spend in training may be one way in which turnover can be reduced.
However, relatively little is known about the concrete effects of training on correctional officer retention. This paper reports on the results of a study designed to test the impact of increased recruit training on turnover during the first year of employment in the correctional system of a southern U. Controlling for the state's unemployment rate, type of institution, as well as attitudinal and socio-demographic indicators, this study measures the effect of the longer training program as compared to the former shorter training program on the retention rate of correctional officers.
This paper summarizes data from a three-year follow-up study of the Baltimore City Drug Treatment Court. The study randomly assigned eligible offenders to either drug treatment court or traditional court processing between February, and August, Official record data were collected on recidivism, treatment, supervision, and time spent behind bars through 36 months following randomization. In addition, follow-up interviews were conducted with the stuy participants to measure the relative importance of the different mechanisms through which drug treatment courts might work.
Previously reported analyses of the one- and two-year official record data showed that the drug court program reduced criminal offending among program participants. Although the amount of services received by the average drug court subject was not as high as intdnded, drug court subjects were significantly less likely than control subjects to re-offend. The current research assesses whether the promising findings from the first two years of the study persisted through the third year. Interview data are used to test the mechanism s leading to crime reduction, including probation supervision and monitoring, personal accountability for behavior, drug treatment and other servicrs, and perceptions of procedural justice.
Interdependence between theoretical understanding and praxis is addressed as an issue over which the citizen should have agency in public discourse.
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Criminologists have a particularly important role in reinterpreting plausible theoretical approaches in language accesible to the local community, and in conceptually relating the theory to permutations of political solutions open to address the issues. This is crucial to the field of criminology, for the very nature of the concept of crime is dependent upon the interpretations and reinterpretations to which we subject both our theoretical approach and the underlying assumptions on which it is founded.
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Our conclusion that the ordinary citizen must be prepared to accept responsibility and to engage in effective public discourse on the basic issues of how crime shall be defined and how we will deal with control locally, nationally, and in a global context, is based on an experimental community forum drawn from our college students in a Los Angeles community. They were persuaded to explore with us just how such public discourse might effectively take place through actually engaging in the forum. A major issue facing juvenile justice practitioners and policymakers across the country is the overrepresentation and disparate treatment of minority youth in the juvenile justice system.
Based on the study's findings, the JJAC developed a series of recommendations to address the observed disparities. Our study used quantitative research methods to examine police, court and corrections decision-making for Black, Hispanic and White juveniles to determine if and where disparate decisions occurred, and whether observed differences remained when controlling for offender and offense characteristics. Moreover, our reassessment study determined whether disparities observed in our baseline study were reduced by system actions undertaken in the six year period following our baseline study.
The proposed ASC paper provides a synopsis of the findings from the reassessment study. To date, homicide research has returned inconsistent and unstable findings. It has been surmised that the main reason for this is that most research tends to use large, aggregated samples.
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Therefore, researchers have been able to discuss general trends of homicide, but have been unable to glean accurate predictors of this phenomenon. Nonetheless, predictors tend to fall in two camps--structural versus cultural. This too poses a problem as predictors might coexist. That is to say that structural factors influence cultural factors and vice versa. The purpose of this paper is to examine disaggregated homicide information in order to ameliorate some of these inconsistencies.
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This paper examines information from individual homicide case files in the county of Riverside between and Specific information such as place of incident, time of incident, relationship between victim and offender, and so on will be geographically coded, and correlated with census block group data. The results found that homicides predictors vary based on spatial location and are grouped within specific areas.
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There has long been a debate about the different levels of sentencing for crack and cocaine offenders. The debate stems around the fact that more affluent people are inclined to use cocaine, which they can easily afford, and less affluent people are more inclined to use crack, the cheaper cocaine derivative. This paper examines the relationship between cocaine offenders, crack offenders, and the sentences each type of offender receives at the federal level.
Findings, which support previous research, indicate that there is indeed disparity in sentencing between each type of offender. Policy implications are also discussed. Despite considerable growth in the industry of police studies, which has done much to enhance our understandings of many of the social and technical aspects of policing, the work of police detectives and the practices employed in the investigation of crime remain comparatively neglected and under-researched.
In this paper I want to explore the extent to which concepts derived from semiotics and blended with a more interpretative sociological epistemology can usefully be employed in understanding some key aspects of the work of crime investigators. In the opening section of the paper I outline the literatures on detectives and semiotics in order to identify their respective key themes.
I then move on to consider some empirical data from two studies concerning the investigation of homicide to demonstrate how a number of semiotic concepts assist in the interpretation of the data. I conclude by mapping out some of the key implications of this semiotics of detective work and consider how the preliminary sketch laid out in this paper might be developed.
Routine activity theory suggests that neighborhood-level activity patterns influence crime rates, and that the convergence of a motivated offender, a suitable target, and the absence of a capable guardian results in the increased likelihood of criminal events. Further, routine activity theorists suggest that neighborhood land-use patterns are related to neighborhood crime rates and that these criminogenic land-uses influence crime in two ways: a by inhibiting an area's social control capacity, and b by attracting particular types of routine activities.
This paper examines the land-use crime relationship with three research questions. First, which land-uses have a direct influence on crime? Second, as disadvantaged neighborhoods often have higher crime rates than more advantaged areas, do land-uses mediate the effects of disadvantage on crime? Finally, do neighborhood social characteristics and land-use patterns interact to increase crime? To address these issues, this research uses census, tax parcel, and crime data from three cities, which vary in terms of size and racial composition.
GIS and spatial regressive models are used, and initial results indicate that land-use may indeed mediate some of the effects of social characteristics on crime and that some land-uses have greater impacts in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Drug courts developed out of an organizational need for an alternative to incarceration. These courts attempt to reduce substance abuse and recidivism through techniques such as monitoring, alternative sanctions, and treatment.
Evaluations of drug courts around the country are beginning to emerge, and although the outcome results are encouraging not all courts are showing a reduction in rearrest rates. The fact remains that despite the rapid expansion of drug courts, their growing prevalence, and popularity, little is known about the ability of the drug court model to achieve its objectives in a variety of circumstances.
The current study will explore the characteristics and outcomes among 7 adult and 3 juvenile drug courts across the State of Ohio. This research adds to the literature by examining the impact of drug court programming on recidivism across jurisdictions. In , the National Institute of Justice commissioned Steven Lab to develop a strategic plan for crime prevention research. This roundtable session will include short presentations on the background for this effort, the process used to develop the plan and the recommendations for future research resulting from the plan.
This planning effort excluded any programs or initiatives which directly target work with adjudicated offenders, or offenders who have begun processing through the formal criminal justice system sometimes referred to as tertiary prevention. The planning effort also excluded a wide range of programs and issues which receive significant attention from other agencies or sources, both within and outside the Department of Justice.
The plan has the following general parameters: 1 it proposes a mix of both community-wide initiatives and smaller scale targeted prevention activities; 2 it proposes a mix of basic research programs along with specific evaluation projects; 3 it incorporates a call for yearly investigator initiated research specifically targeting prevention issues; and 4 it assumes that many initiatives should consider joint funding with NIJ and other agencies.
Time will be allotted for discussion. This research investigates the influence of family conditions on general victimization risk. Victimization research has typically looked upon the family as a context in which victimization occurs, but has seldom considered the broader significance of the family for determining the risk of victimization.
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